Recent Articles

IP Subnetting Part 1 - IPv4

Despite the large number of jokes in high school about never needing to use mathematics after graduation, the art form known as IP Subnetting requires a solid grasp of math based on binary numbers (0, 1).  In this first part of my devoted attention on IP Subnetting, we'll focus on Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addressing, some history, and the methods available to make IPv4 addressing go farther.

Understanding the "network" command

Many network engineers seem to misunderstand the use of the network command in routing protocols on Cisco IOS, especially once they see the usage in BGP.  This occurrence happens more frequently with those studying to become a CCNA, but may not be obvious to experienced engineers either.  Based on my own experience, I have very distinct memories of confusion when the concept I understood was first corrected by a more experienced engineer.  So let's breakdown the confusion.

Troubleshooting with OSI Model

At Layers 1-4, there are several tools or tricks available to quickly verify normal operations.  I have routinely used each of these tools for many years and expect many of them to be familiar.  Many of these tools are technology-specific, meaning that one tool has an application with one technology but not another.  I should also caution that the list below is not intended to be exhaustive or complete.  It's just a collection of my thoughts on what I find really useful.


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Primacore® services include professional consulting for core Information Technology fields such as WAN, data center, and security, which form the foundation of all IT architecture and infrastructure.  As a small consulting company, we provide targeted consulting for specific areas or projects with one goal in mind:  Exceed the expectations of the client.  The tabs below provide an overview of each subject area of our expertise.

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As our primary field of expertise, the Networking focus of Primacore® services encompass a wide variety of critical functions for organizations of all sizes, including:

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  • and many others

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The Security emphasis of Primacore® services contains vendor-specific expertise, such as firewalls, internet proxies, and authentication servers, as well as industry-wide, procedural expertise that touches all areas of the Internetwork.  For us, security is a strategy and a tactic, requiring planning from the base architecture through the stages of implementation and operations, even into the remainder of the IT lifecycle with service management and decommission.

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Primacore® services provide a foundational priority to the examination of processes and procedures used in the design, implementation, and operation of secure internetworks.  We follow the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) model for IT service management, driving best practices and auditable accountability through our services offered to our clients.  In addition, we apply the Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma methodologies to reduce the variability of processes and improve the flow of processes.

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Shifting priorities in the ever-changing IT landscape is a crucial skill requirement for professional services.  Our project expertise lies in managing time, money, and people to maximize the efficiency of your projects and deliver results on time and under budget.