Recent Articles

IP Subnetting Part 1 - IPv4

Despite the large number of jokes in high school about never needing to use mathematics after graduation, the art form known as IP Subnetting requires a solid grasp of math based on binary numbers (0, 1).  In this first part of my devoted attention on IP Subnetting, we'll focus on Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addressing, some history, and the methods available to make IPv4 addressing go farther.

Understanding the "network" command

Many network engineers seem to misunderstand the use of the network command in routing protocols on Cisco IOS, especially once they see the usage in BGP.  This occurrence happens more frequently with those studying to become a CCNA, but may not be obvious to experienced engineers either.  Based on my own experience, I have very distinct memories of confusion when the concept I understood was first corrected by a more experienced engineer.  So let's breakdown the confusion.

Troubleshooting with OSI Model

At Layers 1-4, there are several tools or tricks available to quickly verify normal operations.  I have routinely used each of these tools for many years and expect many of them to be familiar.  Many of these tools are technology-specific, meaning that one tool has an application with one technology but not another.  I should also caution that the list below is not intended to be exhaustive or complete.  It's just a collection of my thoughts on what I find really useful.


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Privacy Policy

Last modified:  January 3, 2011

This Privacy Policy applies to all services offered by Primacore Networks, LLC.  If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, please feel free to contact us:

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c/o Primacore Networks, LLC
3136 Round Tree Ln
Frisco, TX 75034-4589

Information We Collect

  • Personal Information — When you contact us via our Contact Us form, we ask you for "Personal Information", i.e. information that you provide to us which specifically identifies you, including but not limited to your name, email address, or phone number.  To safely provide quality service, we only collect Personal Information through our contact form.
  • Cookies — When you visit our website, we send one or more cookies to your computer or other device.  We only use cookies for individual sessions.  We do not use cookies to track your usage of our website, to save your site preferences between sessions, or to target advertising specifically to your preferences.
  • Log Information — When you access our website via a browser, application or other client, our servers automatically record certain information.  These server logs may include information such as your web request, your interaction with a service, Internet Protocol address, browser type, browser language, the date and time of your request and one or more cookies that may uniquely identify your browser or your account.

How We Use Collected Information

  • User Communications — When you send email or other communications to us, we may retain those communications to improve our services.  If you provide your email address for contact purposes, we may use it to communicate with you about our services.
  • Customer Service — When you contact us, you may be asked for information that identifies you in addition to information needed to promptly answer your question.  We may retain this information to assist you in the future.
  • Service Improvement — We may retain Collected Information to provide, maintain, and improve our services and develop new services.
  • Security — We may retain Collected Information to protect the rights or property of Primacore Networks, LLC.


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Information Sharing

Primacore Networks, LLC does not sell or trade Personal Information with third parties with your explicit consent, which is exclusively obtained on an opt-in basis.

We will act in good faith when Personal Information is transfered to third parties, under the following reasonable exceptions (a) to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request, (b) to enforce applicable Terms of Service, including investigation of potential violations of those Terms, (c) to detect and prevent security issues, including but not limited to fraud, or (d) protect the rights, property, and safety of Primacore Networks, LLC as required or permitted by law.

Information Security

We take industry-standard precautions to protect against any unauthorized access to Personal Information.  These precautions include (a) internal reviews of our data collection, storage and processing practices, (b) appropriate encryption to guard against unauthorized access to systems where we store personal data and to data sent between your web browser and our website.

We restrict access to Personal Information to Primacore Networks, LLC employees and agents who require that Information to process it on our behalf.  These individuals are bound by confidentiality obligations and may be subject to discipline, including termination and criminal prosecution, if they fail to meet these obligations.


Primacore Networks, LLC regularly reviews its compliance with this Privacy Policy.  When we receive formal written complaints, our policy requires contact with the complaining customer regarding his or her concerns.  We will cooperate with the necessary authorities to resolve any complaints regarding the transfer of personal data that cannot be resolved between us and an individual.

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act Compliance

Services offered by Primacore Networks, LLC are not intended for use by children under the age of 18.  We do not knowingly collect Personal Information from children under the age of 18.

Changes To This Privacy Policy

This Privacy Policy may change over time.  We will not reduce your rights under this Privacy Policy without your explicit consent.  We will post any Privacy Policy changes on this page and, if the changes are significant, we will provide a more prominent notice via email, if possible.  We will keep prior versions of this Privacy Policy in an archive for your review, available upon request.