The art form known as IP Subnetting requires a solid grasp of math based on binary numbers (0, 1). In this first part of our devoted attention on IP Subnetting, we'll focus on Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addressing, some history, and the methods available to make IPv4 addressing go farther.
At Layers 1-4, there are several tools or tricks available to quickly verify normal operations. Many of these tools are technology-specific, meaning that one tool has an application with one technology but not another. In our third installment, we explain the "tricks of the trade" needed to excel at troubleshooting network and application problems at Layers 1-4.
The OSI model tends to give a lot of people fits, since it's really abstract and doesn't seem practical at first. Discover the foundation of internetworking through our original article on the OSI Model and what you need to know before you can apply it practically.